Monday, July 22, 2024

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The knowledge we have about Egyptian mathematics is based on two documents: The Moscow Papyrus and the Rhind Papyrus. The first is in a museum in Moscow and the second is in the British Museum in London. The latter owes its name to the wealthy Scotsman Henry Rend. The papyri consist of problem and solution statements. Both were meant to be purely educational in intent, with examples of trivial problem-solving.

The papyri date back to 1650 BC (Rhind) and 1800 BC. (Moscow), but The knowledge in which it appears may be dated to about 3000 B.C. The Rend papyrus is also known as the Ahmose papyrus, and it begins with the phrase: “An accurate account to enter into the knowledge of all things that exist and all the mysteries and dark secrets». Moscow Papyrus unknown author. Other complementary sources are the dermal fascicle, with 26 additions of fractions with the numerator 1, and those of Kahun, Berlin, Renner, and Agmen.

Moscow Papyrus

Mathematical knowledge that appeared in the middle of the first millennium was the same as in the third millennium. Operations were done in a certain way because they were always done that way. The ancient methods of adding, dividing, or solving simple equations continued through the New Kingdom and until the advent of Greek mathematics.

In the Behind the papyrus there are 87 mathematical problems can be arranged into operations containing integers and fractions; difficulty thinking about an arithmetic succession number of sizes, capacities, and polyhedrons; Plane areas base for 2/3 of the even numbers; dimensions; and geometric progression.

The surface of the circle was calculated as a square of 8/9 of the diameter. If we consider a circle with a radius of 100, we get a surface value of 7,901.23. This will give us a value of Pi of 3.160492. Pi is an irrational number that has a value, considering the first 7 decimal places of 3.1415926. The value obtained by the Egyptians is very close, and the error made is approximately 2 percent (3.1625).

red papyrus

Elbows, fingers and palms

The units of length used are anthropomorphic in nature. what does it mean? They are related to body measurements. This way you can find both the base unit and related sub-modules of the same type. The main unit of linear measurement is known as royal elbow It is 52.3 cm tall. This has been divided into extends, so that one royal cubit equals seven spans. The next subunit is Fingerwhich results in one span being four fingers, so one royal arm is equal to 28 fingers.

The basic unit of the area was citate, which is equal to a square of 100 cubits, which is 10,000 cubits squared. This unit had a significant extension, particularly in the New Empire which saw an important fragmentation of the region. So subunits were used. citate in the form of fractions (1/2, 1/4, 1/8, more frequently) that responded to proper names.

Thothite statue in the form of a baboon holding the eyes of Horus (7th-4th centuries BC)

Capacitance can be expressed in two basic units: outside s itchesRepresented by the eyes of Horus. The latter was used for measurement, especially wheat and barley. It was necessary to determine what corresponds to the working day. To measure liquids such as beer, wine, milk, or water, the unit of volume usually used was called the Henu Ohin. Every part of the Eye of Horus was a small part of itches They are known as eye of Horus fractures. These fractions are based on dividing by two by 1/2. Each part was represented by a hieroglyph corresponding to an eye.

July 19, Egyptian New Year

The calendar already exists in 4241 BC The year consists of 365 days, divided into three seasons of four months each. Plus an additional five days that were added to them in case they had to comply with the celebration. Each month had exactly thirty days, divided into three decimal places. The day was divided into 24 hours, 12 daylight hours and 12 night hours. The year began on July 19, when the star SHUTIES appeared in the line of sight.

A basic unit of weight was necessary which equates to about 91 grams today. It should be divided into ten kites. The sub-milano weight was expressed in fractions. The dam was, usually, the equivalent of a gram of copper, although the value of some products could appear in gold or silver. For much of the history of ancient Egypt, the value of silver den was valued at the equivalent of one hundred copper den. Weight was calculated in stone or metal weights representing the head of a bull or deer.

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